RAULT CHODANKAR Yves-Marie - CESSMA - Centre d’études en sciences sociales sur les mondes africains, américains et asiatiques


Discipline : development studies
Contact : yves.marie.rault@gmail.com


Doing research since 2013. I began with the political transition in Myanmar, continued on migrant integration in Bretagne, carried through on climate resilience in South Asian cities, and persisted on social hierarchies and consumption in Delhi. Since 2015, I’ve been working as a doctoral fellow on small pharmaceutical businesses in Ahmedabad and Mumbai, questioning global market structures, uneven regional development, socio-economic networks, and modern capitalist cultures. I will be defending my thesis with the University of Paris on February 7, 2020, and I am looking to continue my work from a European or North American university, interrogating the problematic entanglements between public health, industries and markets across the global economy.


- Personal website
- ResearchGate
- Academia.edu

Research themes

- Globalisation and uneven development
- Entrepreneurship and innovation
- Pharmaceutical industry and public health
- Micro, small and medium enterprises
- India, Myanmar, France, Canada

Research tools

- Economic geography, economic sociology, institutional economics
- Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
- Text Analytics Systems (TAS)
- Semi-structured interviews


- RAULT, Y. M. & MATHEW, S. (2019). An imbalanced ecosystem : start-ups in India. Economic and Political Weekly, 54(45)
- CADENE, P. & RAULT, Y. M. (2019). Les corridors industriels en Inde : entre stratégies de développement régional et libéralisation du capital productif. EchoGéo, 49
- RAULT, Y. M., MATHEW, S., & CEBEILLAC, A. (2018). The commercialisation of shopping malls in India : from « creating » to « meeting » demand. Bulletin de l’Association de géographes français, 1, 61-78.
- RAULT, Y. M. (2017). Classes moyennes et construction d’une modernité indienne : le cas des « shopping malls » à Delhi. Bulletin de l’Association de géographes français, 1, 77-94.
- CEBEILLAC, A. & RAULT, Y. M. (2016). Contribution of geotagged Twitter data in the study of a social group’s activity space : the case of the upper middle class in Delhi, India. Netcom. Réseaux, communication et territoires, (30-3/4), 231-248.
- RAULT, Y. M. (2015). Le lent développement de la grande distribution en Inde, in P. Cadène et B. Dumortier (éd.), L’Inde : une géographie, Paris, Armand Colin, 369-375

Public presentations

- RAULT, Y.M. (01.11.2019). The role of manufacturers without factories in India’s pharmaceutical industry : ’loan licensing’ unpacked. Research workshop : Pharmaceuticals and development in the global South. Global Development Institute, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
- RAULT, Y.M. (25.05.2019). Les petites entreprises pharmaceutiques indiennes face aux normes pharmaceutiques mondiales : subalternités, innovation jugaad et stratégies de diversion. Research workshop : Réseaux productifs globaux et intégration régionale, Université Ibn Zohr d’Agadir, Morocco
- RAULT, Y. M. & CADENE, P. (14.05.2019). Globalisation et circulation des modèles entrepreneuriaux : corridors industriels et développement métropolitain en Inde. Research workshop : Entrepreneuriat urbain, marché et commerce informel. Cessma, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M, (16.04.2019). Social embeddedness and entrepreneurship : concepts, issues, and research avenues. Research workshop : Globalisation and circulation of entrepreneurial models in Europe and Asia. Université Paris Diderot, Paris
- RAULT, Y.M, (12.02.2019). Encastrement social et entrepreneuriat : mise en relation des concepts et recherches actuelles. Research workshop : Circulation des modèles et hétérogénéité des développements. Université Paris Diderot
- RAULT, Y.M, (16.10.2018). The pharmaceutical capital of India : SMEs and Global South markets. Research workshop : Entrepreneurship, Poverty Reduction and Marginalized Sections : Learning from Cross-Country Experience. Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
- RAULT, Y. M. & MATHEW, S. (16.10.2018). The Indian startup ecosystem. Innovative social reproduction ? Research workshop : Entrepreneurship, Poverty Reduction and Marginalized Sections : Learning from Cross-Country Experience. Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai
- RAULT, Y. M. (26.07.2018). The socio-spatial structures of India-South production networks. 6th Global Conference of Economic Geography. University of Köln, Germany
- RAULT, Y. M. (31.05.2018). Subversion et reproduction. L’entrepreneuriat dans l’industrie pharmaceutique à Mumbai et Ahmedabad. Research workshop : Labex Dynamite. Université Paris Diderot, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M. (28.06.2017). Negotiating corporate growth in Gujarat, India. 6th French Network for Asian Studies International Conference (FNASIC). Sciences Po, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M. (10.06.2017). Les « shopping malls » à Delhi : diversité sociale des utilisateurs, diversité des pratiques individuelles. Conference of the Association de Géographes Français : Commerce (s) et loisirs. Institut de Géographie, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M. (30.01.2017). Dynamiques du capital en Inde urbaine. La création d’entreprises pharmaceutiques à Ahmedabad et à Mumbai. Research workshop : Cessma doctoral projects. Cessma, Université Paris Diderot, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M. & CEBEILLAC, A. (11.08.2016). Analyser les espaces de vie : quelle complémentarité de l’étude ethnographique et des données Twitter ? Exemple des espaces de vie des couches supérieures à Delhi. 15th IFSTTAR conference on “Mobilities and Digital (r)evolutions”, Champs-sur-Marne
- RAULT, Y. M. (23.01.2016). Les « shopping malls », espaces de construction des classes moyennes indiennes. Conference of the Association de Géographes Français : L’émergence de l’Inde. Institut de Géographie, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M. & CEBEILLAC, A. (31.03.2016). Who are the Indian luxury shoppers ? Contribution of geotagged Twitter data in the study of high-income groups. 18th AJEI International Conference. Institut Français de Pondicherry. Pondicherry, India
- RAULT, Y. M. (16.05.2016). Le créateur d’entreprise indien : individu ou groupe social ?. Research workshop : Université Paris Cité doctoral projects. Inalco, Paris
- RAULT, Y. M. (01.10.2015). Inclusive education as a stimulus for entrepreneurship : the case of India. Asia-Europe Foundation summit on entrepreneurship and youth employment. Luxemburg, Luxemburg

Thesis subject

India’s small pharmaceutical businesses, agents of an alternative globalisation

- The defence, in French, will take place on February 7, 2020, from 2 to 5 pm, at the University Paris Diderot, Olympe de Gouges building, room M19. All are welcome to attend.

Director : Prof. Philippe CADENE (CESSMA - Université Paris 7 Diderot)

Co-director : Prof. Isabelle Milbert (Graduate Institute, Geneva)

Thesis summary

How did globally dominated small Indian businesses manage to gain a foothold in the pharmaceutical market ? To address the issue, we borrow some theoretical tools from Pierre Bourdieu’s sociology, the geography of networks, and institutional economics. We use quantitative and qualitative databases collected in India through interviews of several stakeholders of the local pharmaceutical industry, including a body of semi-structured interviews with 114 directors of small businesses, mostly based in Ahmedabad (Gujarat) and Mumbai (Maharashtra). Our interdisciplinary analysis shows that India’s small pharmaceutical businesses into dependency relationships and fragile positions in the global market. In this context, their strategies to enter generic segments in middle-income countries like India are embedded into diverse, multiple, and dynamic social networks, and approach the global pharmaceutical field in specific ways. Mostly located in large Indian cities, where inward and outward exchanges can take place, their directors, often driven by material motivations, draw on their commercial skills to innovate and grow, often transgressing national and international norms. With a singular approach to markets and public health, India’s small pharmaceutical businesses seem to usher in alternative forms of participation in contemporary globalisation.